TagSecurities Regulation

Non-Fungible Tokens: An Indian Perspective

[Aiyushi Mehrotra is a 4th  Year B.A., LLB. student at Gujarat National Law University, Gandhinagar] Non-fungible tokens (“NFTs”) are digital blockchain tokens that identify ownership or particulars of unique items, whether they be digital or real in form. They are traded and programmed in the same way as cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin or Ethereum, but that is where the similarities...

SAFE Notes: A Novel Funding and ‘Safe’ Method?

[Devansh Parekh and Tanishq Mohta are BLS. LL.B. students at the Government Law College, Mumbai] When early-stage companies set out to raise capital, they are often presented with multiple fundraising vehicles to accomplish their goal. Over the years, hybrid instruments for investments such as Convertible Compulsory Debentures (“CCD”) and Compulsory Convertible Preference Shares (“CCPS”) have...

IFSCA-GNLU Certificate Course on Financial Market Laws

[Announcement on behalf of Gujarat National Law University (GNLU)] The commercial dialogue among business entities is incomplete without financial communications. The role of law, specifically the financial market (laws and regulations), is significant to regulate the financial activities of the business entities in the financial market. Since 1991, with the liberalized economic policy (Indian...

Directors’ Liability and Climate Risk in India

Climate change has garnered significant attention given that it poses a serious challenge to sustainable development. No longer is it merely within the domain of voluntary conduct on the part of corporations. Instead, it is a material financial risk that corporations encounter, thereby imposing duties on the boards of directors of corporations to recognise and address climate risk. In “Directors’...

ESOPs to Non-permanent Employees: An Analysis of SEBI’s Recommendation

[Anant Budhraja is a III year student at the West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata] Unacademy, the ed-tech unicorn, became the first Indian company to issue Employee Stock Options (ESOPs) to gig workers, i.e., educators on their platform, in July 2021.These options, referred to as Teachers Stock Options (TSOPs), constituted a corpus of $40 million, which had directly...

Compounding under Section 24A of SEBI Act: Charting A New Course

[Navya Saxena and Aadya Bansal are 4th-year B.A., LL.B. (Hons.) students at National Law Institute University, Bhopal] In Prakash Gupta v. Securities and Exchange Board of India (26 July 2021), the Supreme Court has addressed the question of whether the Securities and Exchange Board of India (“SEBI”) has veto power over compounding of offences under the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act...

Qualitative Tests for Accredited Investors: A Comparative Study

[Mehek Wadhwani and Rishi Raj are third-year students of B.A. LL.B. (Hons.) at MNLU Aurangabad] The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) recently ushered in the concept of a new class of investors in the Indian securities market, termed as accredited investors or qualified investors or professional investors. On 3 August 2021, the SEBI (Alternative Investment Funds) Regulations, 2012...

Compounding of Offences under the SEBI Act: Limiting the Role of SEBI

[Abhiraam Shukla is a III year student at the National Law Institute University, Bhopal] Section 24A of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (“SEBI Act”) provides for the compounding/composition of certain offences which are punishable under the SEBI Act. It stipulates that any offence under the SEBI Act which is not punishable exclusively by imprisonment or by imprisonment and a...

Stalemate on the SAT in the PNB Housing Preferential Allotment Case

A two-member bench of the Securities Appellate Tribunal (SAT) yesterday returned a split verdict on the legal issues surrounding the preferential allotment of shares by PNB Housing Finance Limited. The facts are relatively straightforward. Since PNB Housing’s controlling shareholder, Punjab National Bank, was unable to infuse funds due to the lack of regulatory approval from the Reserve Bank of...

Mandatory Sunset Provisions in Shares with Superior Voting Rights

[Bhavya Solanki is a 4th year B.A., LL.B. (Hons.) student at the Maharashtra National Law University, Mumbai] Shares with differential voting rights [“DVR”], internationally known as dual class shares [“DCS”], are shares which have rights disproportionate to their economic ownership. DVRs include shares with superior voting rights [“SR Shares”] and shares with...

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