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FAQs on Borrowing by Large Corporates: Unveiling the Perplexity

[Pammy Jaiswal is a Partner at Vinod Kothari and Company and can be reached at [email protected]] Background The untiring efforts of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) as well as the Government in uplifting the bond market is quite commendable. SEBI has started taking major steps towards the accomplishment of the budget announcement by the Government for the year 2018-19...

Better Safe than Sorry: The Importance of Registering Lease Deeds

[Huzefa Tavawalla is a Leader, Aishwarya H a Senior Member and Anusha Reddy a Member, all at Nishith Desai Associates] The legal provisions which mandate registration of lease deeds are rarely explored. As a result, the law on registration of lease deeds is often misunderstood. While parties spend much time negotiating terms of a lease deed (lock-in period, security deposit, termination...

Increasing the Ambit of Rights Available to Voting by Proxy

[Vishal Hablani and Anirudh Goyal are 3rd & 4th Year B.A.L.L.B. (Hons.) students respectively at the West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata] Under the proxy system of voting, a shareholder delegates his rights to attend and vote at a meeting to another person as his representative. This representative is known as the proxy. The system of proxy voting has statutory...

Corporate Insolvency and the Admission of a Debt under the Negotiable Instruments Act

[Siddharth Kumar is a III year BBA LLB (Hons.) student at Vivekananda School of Law and Legal Studies, New Delhi and can be reached at [email protected]] The National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (“NCLAT”) in Sudhi Sachdev v. M/s APPL  Industries Ltd. held that the pendency of a case under sections 138 and141 of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 (“NI Act”)  amounts to an admission of...

Role of the Adjudicating Authority in Considering a Resolution Plan

[Richa Saraf and Ananya Raghavendra are with Vinod Kothari Consultants Pvt Ltd] The insolvency resolution process of Binani Cements has been through various twists and turns. On 19 November 2018, the Supreme Court in Rajputana Properties Pvt. Ltd. v. UltraTech Cement Ltd. & Ors. dismissed Dalmia Bharat’s plea to seek a stay on Ultratech’s bid for Binani Cement, thereby upholding the UltraTech...

Where We Stand On Shell Companies

[Tishya Saran and Aayush Grover are both 5th year students of Government Law College, Mumbai] Background Continuing its crackdown on shell companies, the Government has promulgated the Companies (Amendment) Ordinance, 2018 (the “Ordinance”), with effect from 2 November 2018. The Ordinance, amongst other things, seeks to enhance accountability for non-filing of charges, maintenance of documents...

Non-Dominant Enterprises’ Offers and Schemes: Predatory Pricing or Not?

[Muskan Agarwal is a 3rd-year B.A. LL.B. (Hons.) student of National Law Institute University, Bhopal] The Competition Act of 2002 [the “Act”] defines predatory pricing as the sale of goods or provision of services at a price which is below the cost of production, with a view to reduce competition or eliminate competitors. Predatory pricing is seen as abuse of dominant position under section 4 of...

Doctrine of Good Faith and Fair Dealing: Lacuna in Indian Contract Law

[Angad Singh Makkar is a 4th year BA LLB (Hons.) student at Jindal Global Law School in Sonipat, Haryana] Parties enjoying ample discretion to decide the ways of performance and enforceability of their mutual obligations is an inevitability within the realm of contract law.[1] And where there is discretion, there is an appreciable risk of it being exercised in a self-interested or opportunistic...

Inclusion of Non-signatory Third Parties in an Arbitration Proceeding

[Divyansha Agrawal is a B.A.LLB (Hons.) student at Jindal Global Law School] Introduction                     According to the principle of competence-competence, an arbitral tribunal in a given case has full authority to rule on its own jurisdiction. Articles 8 and 16 of the UNCITRAL Model Law re-affirm this principle. Article 16(3) of Model Law provides that the arbitral tribunal may rule on an...

Whether a Refund of Advance is an Operational Debt

[Richa Saraf and Shreya Jain are with Vinod Kothari Consultants Pvt. Ltd.] It is not an unusual business practice to collect advance monies from consumers before providing goods or services to them. In such a scenario, consumers constantly bear the risk of not being able to recover the advance amount in the event the provider of goods or services abruptly ceases operations and, as such, also...

Corporate Insolvency and the “Fitter Bidder”

[Jaskiran Kaur is an associate at IndusLaw] The National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (“NCLAT”) on 14 November, 2018 gave a go – ahead to the revised bid of Ultratech Cement Limited (“Ultratech”) for the acquisition of debt-ridden Binani Cement Limited (“Binani Cement”), while ruling that the resolution plan submitted by the competitor Dalmia Bharat through its group firm Rajputana Properties...

Filing of Return for Delayed Payment to MSMEs

[Simran Jalan is an Executive at Vinod Kothari & Co] The Government of India enacted the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006 (the “Act”) to ensure timely and smooth flow of credit to micro, small, and medium enterprises (“MSMEs”) and minimize sickness among them. The Act strengthens the provisions relating to delayed payments to the MSMEs by specifying the maximum credit...

Filing of Form PAS-4 in Private Placements

[Deepansh Guwalani is a 5th year student at ILS Law College, Pune] Introduction Private placement in India is regulated by section 42 of the Companies Act, 2013 (the “Act”) and rule 14 of the Companies (Prospectus and Allotment of Securities) Rules, 2014 (the “Allotment Rules”). The said laws have undergone a recent change by way of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017 and the Companies...

Relevant Market in E-commerce: The Dilemma Resolved?

[Samarth Saxena and Mohak Chikhale are Final Year students at ILS Law College, Pune] This post aims to critically analyse a constant conundrum in the Indian antitrust scenario, namely the relevant market analysis in the e-commerce sector. It does so in the context of the order (“Order”) of the Competition Commission of India (“CCI”) in All India Online Vendors Association (“AIOVA”) v. Flipkart...

Price Parallelism in Bid Rigging Arrangements

[Gunjan Garg is a 3rd year B.A LLB (Hons.) student of National Law Institute University, Bhopal] The Indian Competition Act in section 3 deals with ‘anti-competitive agreements’ which gives the Competition Commission of India (“CCI”) the power to prohibit any agreement between enterprises or persons engaged in identical or similar trade of goods and services, directly or indirectly resulting in...

Activation of Companies Struck Off under Companies Act

[Anirudh Singh is a 4thyear B.A LL.B (Hons) student of NALSAR University, Hyderabad] When a company is registered on incorporation, it is necessary that it should have a process of deregistration other than by way of winding up. This is so if, after registration, the company does not carry on business. Such process, known as “striking off”, is specified in section 248 of Companies Act...

Supreme Court on the Applicability of the Limitation Act to Insolvency Proceedings

[Surbhi Jaju and Pulkit Chaturvedi are associates at Lakshmikumaran and Sridharan Attorneys] Introduction The conundrum of whether the Limitation Act, 1963 (‘Limitation Act’) applies to the proceedings initiated under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (‘Code’) has confused the stakeholders since the inception of the Code. The Code was formulated primarily to provide a mechanism to...

Prompt Corrective Action

[Manal Shah is a B.A. LL.B. (Hons.) student at the National University of Advanced Legal Studies, Kochi and writes at thesecuritiesblawg.in] Prompt corrective action (“PCA”) is intended to “intervene early and take corrective measures in a timely manner, so as to restore the financial health of banks that are at risk by limiting deterioration in their health and preserving their capital levels”...

Perceiving Data Protection within the Umbrella of Competition Law

[Vishal Singh is a III Year student at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, Lucknow] The Competition Act, 2002 has been enacted to prevent activities that have an adverse effect on competition in the Indian Market. The Preamble of the Act unambiguously enunciates the role of ‘economic efficiency’ in competition law. The goal of competition law is to build a competitive market and thus...

Supreme Court on Insolvency Resolution by Operational Creditors

[Akhil Kumar and Ayushi Singh are Fourth Year and Third Year BA LLB (Hons.) students respectively at NUALS, Kochi] Petitions filed under section 9 of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (the Code) have received scrutiny before the adjudicating authority, being the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT), the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) as well as the Supreme Court on various...

Linde- Praxair Merger: Competition Assessment in the Industrial Gas Market

[Vaidehi Soni is a 4thYear B.A., LL.B. (Hons.) student at The National University of Advanced Legal Studies, Kochi] Background Linde Aktiengesellschaft (Linde) and Praxair, Inc. (Praxair), both international gasses and engineering companies primarily active in industrial gases, specialty gases, medical gases, related engineering and services sectors, entered into a business agreement wherein the...

RBI’s Measures for NBFCs and HFCs

[Vineet Ojha is a Manager at Vinod Kothari Consultants Pvt Ltd] In most developed nations, the bond market is often several multiples larger than the equity market. The same cannot be said about the India’s corporate bond market, as it is still underdeveloped and therefore unable to meaningfully share the credit burden of the banking system. To ease the funding strains non-bank lenders face and...

Resolving Ambiguities in CSR Provisions

[Bunny Sehgal is an Associate at Vinod Kothari & Co. and can be reached at [email protected]] With the enactment of the Companies Act, 2013 (‘Act’), India has become one of the leading countries to mandate spending on corporate social responsibility (‘CSR’) activities through a statutory provision. Since then CSR has become a topic of interest for corporates. Further, with the passage...

Call for Papers: NLIU Journal of Intellectual Property Law

[Announcement from the NLIU Journal of Intellectual Property Law] The Cell for Studies in Intellectual Property Rights (CSIPR), incorporated under the aegis of Prof. (Dr.) Ghayur Alam, Chair of IP Law at the National Law Institute University, Bhopal (NLIU), is now accepting submissions for Volume 8 of the NLIU Journal of Intellectual Property Law. About the Journal The NLIU Journal of...

Analyzing the Applicability of GAAR to Schemes of Arrangement

[Varun Kannan is a 4thyear student at NUJS, Kolkata]. In a recent post on this Blog, Prof. Umakanth Varottil has elaborately examined the NCLT decision rejecting the proposed scheme of merger of Gabs Investments Private Limited into Ajanta Pharma Limited. In this post, I shall specifically analyze the applicability of the General Anti-Avoidance Rules (“GAAR”) against a proposed scheme of...

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