SARFAESI Amendment: A New Role for Debenture Trustees

[The
following post is contributed by Vinod
Kothari
and Nidhi Bothra of
Vinod Kothari & Co. The authors can be reached at vinod@vinodkothari.com and nidhi@vinodkothari.com respectively]
Introduction
The Enforcement of Security
Interest and Recovery of Debt Laws and Miscellaneous Provisions (Amendment)
Act, 2016
[1]
(Amendment Act) has introduced several amendments to the Securitisation and
Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act,
2002 (SARFAESI Act), Recovery of Debts due to Banks and Financial Institutions
Act, 1993 (RDDBFI Act) and other incidental laws. The amendments were
introduced in an attempt to change the
credit landscape and to augment ease of doing business
. The objective was
also to facilitate faster disposal of recovery applications which was the very
intent with which the statutes were introduced in the first place.
The amendments introduced the Act focus
on
(i) registration of creation,
modification and satisfaction of security interest by all secured creditors and
provision for integration of registration systems under different laws relating
to property rights with the Central Registry so as to create Central database
of security interest on property rights; (ii) conferment of powers upon the
Reserve Bank of India to regulate asset reconstruction companies in a changing
business environment; (iii) exemption from stamp duty on assignment of loans by
banks and financial institutions in favour of asset reconstruction companies;
(iv) enabling non-institutional investors to invest in security receipts; (v) debenture trustees as secured creditors;
(vi) specific timeline for taking possession of secured assets; and (vii)
priority to secured creditors in repayment of debts
.
(Emphasis Ours)
The definition of secured creditors
under section 2(1)(zd) in the SARFAESI Act was substituted to read as follows:
‘(zd) “secured creditor” means—
(i)         any
bank or financial institution or any consortium or group of banks or financial
institutions holding any right, title or interest upon any tangible asset or
intangible asset as specified in clause (l);
(ii)        debenture
trustee appointed by any bank or financial institution; or
(iii)       an
asset reconstruction company whether acting as such or managing a trust set up
by such asset reconstruction company for the securitisation or reconstruction,
as the case may be; or
(iv)       debenture trustee registered with the
Board appointed by any company for secured debt securities
; or
(v)        any
other trustee holding securities on behalf of a bank or financial institution,
in whose favour security interest is
created by any borrower for due repayment of any financial assistance.’;
By virtue of the debenture trustee
being included in the definition of secured creditors, the debenture trustee
can take enforcement action under section 13 of the SARFAESI Act. To consider
the provisions, section 13 (2) states:
(2) Where any borrower, who is under a liability to a secured creditor
under a security agreement, makes any
default in repayment of secured debt
or any instalment thereof, and his
account in respect of such debt is
classified by the secured creditor as non-performing asset
, then, the secured
creditor may require the borrower by notice in writing to discharge in full his
liabilities to the secured creditor within sixty days from the date of notice
failing which the secured creditor shall be entitled to exercise all or any of
the rights under subsection (4).
The Amendment Act introduces a proviso
to section 13(2) in line with the amendment of the definition of secured
creditors and is as follows:
“Provided that—
(i)         the
requirement of classification of secured debt as non-performing asset under
this sub-section shall not apply to a borrower who has raised funds through
issue of debt securities; and
(ii)        in
the event of default, the debenture trustee shall be entitled to enforce
security interest in the same manner as provided under this section with such
modifications as may be necessary and in accordance with the terms and
conditions of security documents executed in favour of the debenture
trustee;”;
In essence, in case of debt securities,
the requirement of the secured debt classifying as non-performing asset (NPA)
shall not prevail and also that section 13(2) will be read with appropriate
modifications in case the secured creditor is the debenture trustee. The
debenture trustee can take action as provided under the security documents.
Further, the debenture trustee being a
secured creditor can also take enforcement action once there is a default in
repayment
, where the debt is qualified as non-performing in nature.
The Amendment Act also substitutes the
definition of default to read as
follows:
(j) “default” means—
(i) non-payment of any debt or any
other amount payable by the borrower to any secured creditor consequent upon
which the account of such borrower is classified as non-performing asset in the
books of account of the secured creditor; or
(ii)
non-payment of any debt or any other amount payable by the borrower with
respect to debt securities after notice of ninety days demanding payment of
dues served upon such borrower by the debenture trustee or any other authority
in whose favour security interest is created for the benefit of holders of such
debt securities;
We now discuss
the impact of the amendments with regard in case of debt securities.
Enforcement of security interests in case of debt securities
The significant
points to be noted as regards enforcement of security interests in case of debt
securities are as follows:
– Since the definition of “secured creditor”, as
amended, includes a trustee for debt securities, the enforcement will be carried
out by the trustee. In case of secured debentures, the trustee is the holder of
security interests, which he holds in trust for the debenture holders.
– The debentures issued or invested in are not on the
books of the trustee at all. Therefore, the question of such debentures or debt
securities being an NPA in the books of the trustee does not arise. It is in
this light that the proviso below sub-section (2) provides that the
classification as an NPA in the books of the secured creditor will not be
applicable.
– Clause (ii) of the proviso added by the Amending Act
states that the trustee shall be entitled to exercise security interest in
“accordance with the terms and conditions of security documents executed in favour
of the debenture trustee”. It is quite obvious that the law merely provides a
mechanism for self-help enforcement. That right of enforcement should come from
the security agreement. This is the consistent view that the authors have had
on the law, even as originally enacted. In view of the language of the law,
going forward, the security agreements (mortgage, hypothecations or trust
deeds) executed with debenture trustees may like to have specific clauses about
enforcement of security interests.
Nature of secured assets and practical utility of the new provisions:
The market for
corporate bonds in India is still a fledgling one; most debentures are issued
by financial sector entities. Most of the debentures issued by financial sector
entities, other than the bonds that are to qualify to be part of Tier IA or
Tier II capital for regulatory purposes, are secured by floating charges on
receivables. The floating charge is also typically on a common pool of
receivables, shared by several series of debentures. That is to say, subject to
a specific asset cover requirement, the issuer may continue issuing debentures,
on the same common pool. Neither is there any ring-fencing, nor is there any
identification.
Such a security
interest is practically no different from the issuer’s obligation to pay. The
issuer’s assets are fungible, unidentifiable pool of receivables, simply with
the underlying asset cover. Most often, a common trustee holds security
interest for several series of bonds or debentures. Assuming there is a default
with respect to one of the series of debentures, there is no way the trustee
may identify the receivables to any specific series of debentures. Therefore,
unless the issuer was to default on all the bonds/debentures, there will be no
way to enforce the section.
Assuming the
unlikely situation where the issuer were to default on all the bonds, even
then, unless the debenture trustee has a charge on all the assets of the
issuer, enforcing security interest on the receivables may amount to collecting
the money from the obligors – which is much worse than collecting the money
from the issuer himself.
While the law
does not help in such situations, a proper crafting of the security agreements
may. For example, the security agreement may provide that that the trustee may,
in the event of default, direct all receivables to be put into a separate bank
account, from where the receivables will be used in a certain manner of
waterfall.
Yet another
difficulty in case of floating charges backing debentures will be overlapping
security interest in favour of other lenders. Mostly, working capital lenders
may also have floating charge over the receivables. If the trustee shares the
security interest, on an unidentifiable portion of receivables, it may not be
possible to use the security interests at all.
The whole
device of floating charges backing the issue of debentures was visualized
decades ago in the U.K., predominantly with the idea of permitting the
debentureholders to appoint an administrative receiver, and to cause a change
of management on a going concern basis. This was easy because the
debentureholder had security interest on the entire enterprise of the issuer.
However, the practice was abolished in the U.K. after the specific amendments
brought by the Enterprise Act, 2002.
World over,
corporate bonds are mostly unsecured obligations of the issuer. In India,
debentures had to be secured because of the provisions pertaining to public
deposits. Recent amendments in deposit rules have permitted companies to issue
unsecured debentures – therefore, the whole concept of secured debentures may
soon become obsolete.
Manner of enforcement by debenture trustee:
The manner of
enforcement of security interest by a trustee will involve two notices, one,
for constituting default, and the other, demanding payment in terms of section
13(2). The process will involve the following steps:
– First of all, there has to be a breach of scheduled
payment, as per the terms of issue of the debentures. For example, a scheduled
interest or principal payment is not made. Note that defaults other than
payment defaults (for example, a default in meeting the obligation to maintain
an asset cover, or a debt service reserve, etc.) may not constitute “default”
as defined in section 2 (1) (j) at all.
– Once there is such breach of payment of obligation,
the trustee has to serve a notice demanding payment. This is a 90-days’ notice,
required in terms of section 2(1)(j) to constitute a case of default,
equivalent to characterization of the asset as NPA in case of loans.
– If, after 90 days’ notice as above, the amounts
demanded as above are not settled by the issuer, then the trustee may serve a
notice in terms of section 13(2), demanding payment within 60 days of the
notice. This notice is notice under section 13(2) – therefore, it has to
satisfy all the requirements of the notice, including the details of the
secured asset, etc. The notice under sec. 13 (2) may also be a recall or
acceleration notice, demanding full repayment of the debentures, since, at this
stage, the trustee may like to demand not just settlement of the defaulted
amount, but a completely paydown of the entire debt security.
– If, after service of the second notice, issuer does
not pay the amount demanded in the notice under section 13 (2), the trustee may
take the measures mentioned in section 13 (4).
Conclusion
Debenture trustees hold the security
interest for and on behalf of the debenture holders. With the insertions in the
Amendment Act, the debenture trustees have a significant role in enforcement of
security interests which goes beyond identifying such stress situations which
may jeopardise the security interests they hold and taking timely and
appropriate action in that regard. The security documents henceforth will have
to have clauses detailing the role of the debenture trustee in case of default
and the responsibilities thereof. Opening up SARFAESI action gives debenture
trustees a strong hold on the enforcement possibilities and widens the scope
the role. The debt investors’ community will certainly welcome the amendments
introduced.
– Vinod
Kothari & Nidhi Bothra  



[1] The Act received President’s assent
on 12 August, 2016, although the enforcement notification has not yet been
passed.

About the author

Umakanth Varottil

Umakanth Varottil is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore. He specializes in corporate law and governance, mergers and acquisitions and cross-border investments. Prior to his foray into academia, Umakanth was a partner at a pre-eminent law firm in India.

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