Interpretive Guidance: Differential Rights on Shares

Section 86(a)(ii) of the Companies Act, 1956 as well as the Companies (Issue of Share Capital and Differential Voting Rights) Rules, 2001 permit the issue of shares with differential rights as to voting and dividend (DVRs) by companies, subject to certain conditions. Such issue of shares with DVRs has also been implicitly blessed by the Company Law Tribunal in Anand Pershad Jaiswal v. Jagatjit...

Differential Voting Rights: Ruling by CLB

Several months ago, we had mentioned that the validity of shares with differential voting rights (DVRs), particularly as a defence against takeovers, was challenged before the Company Law Board (CLB) in the Jagatjit Industries Case. Today’s Economic Times reports that the CLB has passed its order upholding the resolution to allot shares with DVRs to the promoter of the company. A brief background...

Differential Voting Rights: Some Further References

In earlier posts (here and here), this Blog had covered the issue of differential voting rights by Indian companies. A recent column by Srikanth Srinivas in the Business World examines the business rationale for the issuance of shares with differential voting rights and also the pros and cons of such instruments. The key objectives that companies seek to achieve through shares with differential...

Differential Voting Rights: A Markets Perspective

Economic Times carries the views and recommendations of various market participants about the feasibility and economics of issue of differential voting rights by Indian companies. One interviewee notes: “Differential voting rights can work every where in the world, and so also in India. These are ideally good instruments for passive investors, typically small investors, who seek higher dividend...

Differential Voting Rights as a Takeover Defence

Shares with differential voting rights (DVRs) have been permitted to be issued by Indian companies since 2001 when the Companies (Issue of Share Capital with Differential Voting Rights) Rules were issued. Not only have there been stringent conditions imposed with respect to issuance of shares with DVRs, but the rules themselves have given rise to several issues (particularly with reference to...

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