Some highlights of Supreme Court’s decision in Sahara Companies’ matter

As has
been widely reported, the Supreme Court rejected all the contentions of
the two Sahara companies (“Saharas”) against the order of SAT which in
turn was against the order of SEBI. The matter of course is far more
complex than being a linear sequence of orders and appeals and has several
detours to Allahabad and other courts but, in essence, it is sufficient to
consider this series of Orders only. The decision of the Supreme Court covers
many important issues and, to clarify at the outset, this is only to highlight
some important aspects of the decision. The decision covers many important areas
– of powers of SEBI, of what constitutes an issue to the public, of the
sanctity of Guidelines of SEBI and so on. There are concerns about the dubious
role that the Registrar of Companies performed. The Supreme Court also appears
to have endorsed the possibility of criminal action against the Saharas. These
and other issues may need separate legal analysis as to its scope and
implications. Further, the progress of implementation of the order of the
Supreme Court in terms of payment of refund monies into the designated bank,
identification of the OFCDs holders, etc. will have to be seen. There are
reports that the Saharas may pursue further litigation and hence this matter
may develop even further.     

essential facts are summarized in a simplified manner below. However, one preliminary
thought comes to mind. The facts are quite glaring and extreme. The Saharas offered
their Optionally Fully Convertible Debentures (“OFCDs”) to crores
of people, hiring lakhs of agents through thousands of
and raised tens of thousands of crores of rupees.
And then they claimed, clearly on technical grounds, that there was no issue of
securities to the public that would result in need for compliance of SEBI
Regulations and other laws for disclosure, investor protection, etc. Further,
they refused to provide information to SEBI and adopted delaying tactics. In
face of such facts, one wonders whether the decision – which rejects every
contention of the Saharas and even removing several creases and gaps in law in
the process – could be interpreted to some extent as restricted to the facts of
the case.

To come to
the facts, the Saharas, as the Supreme Court records, sought to raise funds
through Optionally Fully Convertible Debentures (OFCDs”). They filed/circulated an
information memorandum/ Red Herring Prospectus with the Registrar of Companies but
no documents with SEBI. It took a view that issue of shares to a group of
people – described in an extremely broad manner – did not amount to an issue to
the public requiring compliance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956,
the SEBI Act and Regulations, etc. that dealt with public issues. The Saharas,
however, appointed about 10,00,000 agents, opened 2900 branches and offered the
OFCDs to crores of people, and issued the OFCDs to some 66 lakhs people (it
appears actual figures may be even higher). Contrast this with the maximum
limit of 49 offerees permitted under Section 67(3) of the Companies Act, 1956,
beyond which the offer would become a public offer.

When the
Sahara Group filed an offer document through merchant banker for a public issue
of shares of another group company, SEBI, having come to know through this
offer document of the earlier issues of OFCDs, made preliminary inquiries with the
merchant banker. The merchant banker essentially replied, relying on legal
opinions, that the earlier issues of OFCDs were in compliance of law but did
not provide more details. When SEBI pursued the matter further with the
Saharas, they insisted that SEBI had no jurisdiction and that they had complied
with the law and would respond only to the Registrar of Companies. In what was
seen to be further delaying tactics, they claimed that the issue as to whether
they are liable to provide information to SEBI was pending determination before
the Law Ministry and SEBI should wait till the matter was resolved. This
resulted in gathering of information by SEBI from ROC documents and passing of certain
orders by SEBI, petitions before High Court, etc. and finally, the Order by
SEBI which, alongwith the Order on appeal by SAT was upheld by the Supreme

issues were raised before the Supreme Court. The rulings of the Supreme Court
and their implications would need far more detailed analysis and at this stage,
some important of these issues and rulings are highlighted below.

Was the
offer of OFCDs by the Saharas a “private placement” or an issue to the public?
was noted that the offer was made to “friends, associates, group
companies, workers/ employees and other individuals associated/affiliated or
connected in any manner with Sahara India Group of Companies”. These persons in
reality turned out to be nearly 3 crores in number. When finally details of the
allottees were provided, the Supreme Court was dissatisfied with the details
and noted that the front page was enough to cast doubt on the genuineness of
the persons. An allottee was named merely “Kalavati” and the person introducing
her was named “Haridwar”. No details were provided how the allottees even
formed part of the group described above.
was held that in view of the first proviso to Section 67(3), offer to more than
49 persons would be deemed to be an offer to the public. The fact that the
offer was clearly made to more than 49 persons attracted this provision. Apart
from the offer to more than 49 conditions, another preceding that the offer
should have been made as a matter of domestic concern between the persons
making and receiving the offer was also not satisfied in view of the extremely
broad description of the offerees. Further, since the OFCDs were transferable,
yet another preceding condition – that the offer should not be calculated to be
received by persons other than the offerees – was also not satisfied.
the offer was clearly a offer to the public under Section 67(3) of the
Companies Act, 1956.
there was violation of rules of natural justice in the Order of SEBI (FTM) as
held by SAT?
issue was not pursued before the Supreme Court though held against SEBI by SAT.
However, the Supreme Court still felt it appropriate to consider this issue.
on basis of certain investor data made available, had approached randomly four
of the investors. It found that two of the “investors” were not traceable. The
other two stated that they had invested because agents approached them. SEBI
held that thus this showed that the offer was made to the public and not even
to the broadly described group. SAT held that relying on such findings without
providing them to the Saharas and giving them an opportunity to rebut them amounted
to violation of the rules of natural justice.
Supreme Court held that this was not correct. The rules of natural justice were
“available only to a party which has itself been fair, and therefore,
deserves to be treated fairly”. The Saharas had not at all cooperated with SEBI
in providing the data despite having been provided with several opportunities.
Further, instead of countering the findings of SEBI with correct data, it
merely contested this issue on the basis that the rules of natural justice were
it was held that the Order of the SAT on this aspect could not be sustained.
the OFCDs which admittedly were “hybrids”, were securities and hence amenable
to jurisdiction of SEBI?
Saharas contrasted the definition of securities under the SEBI Act/SCRA and the
Companies Act, 1956 to submit that the term securities under the SEBI Act/SCRA
did not cover hybrids while that under the Companies Act, 1956, covered it.
Reliance was placed on the definition under the Companies Act, 1956, which
“2(45AA) “securities”
means securities as defined in clause (h) of section 2 of the Securities
Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956), and includes hybrids;” (emphasis supplied)
it was argued by Saharas that since hybrids were specifically included as
an addition
, it showed that the basic definition of securities under
SCRA could not have included hybrids. Thus, in short, the OFCDs, being hybrids
were governed only by the Companies Act, 1956, and SEBI – who obtained
jurisdiction under the SEBI Act/SCRA, could not govern issue of securities.
Supreme Court first held that since under Section 55A, SEBI had powers to
administer various specified provisions of the Companies Act, 1956, in matters
of issue of securities and since securities specifically included hybrids, SEBI
did have jurisdiction to that extent.
the Supreme Court examined the definition of hybrid under the Companies Act,
1956, and noted that it covered any security that had the character of more
than one type of security including their derivatives. The definition under
SCRA defines securities inclusively and not exhaustively. Since, by definition,
a hybrid is a “security”, it is covered by definition of “securities” under
SCRA. Further, securities under SCRA included “other marketable securities of a
like nature” and thus hybrids would be once again be covered. It was
particularly noted that the OFCDs were transferable, i.e., “marketable” as
understood in this context.
hybrids were held to be securities under SCRA too and hence SEBI was held to
have jurisdiction over them.
It is
submitted that this does not fully explain why the definition under the
Companies Act, 1956, specifically included hybrids.
the listing of OFCDs on stock exchanges was optional or mandatory?
Saharas argued that under Section 60B, there was clear demarcation of listed
and unlisted companies and unlisted companies were required to file the RHP
only with the Registrar of Companies. The Saharas were neither listed nor
intended to be listed. SEBI countered that Section 73 clearly requires that a company
seeking to offer securities to the public has to apply for listing to the stock
Supreme Court read Section 60B and Section 73 harmoniously and held that it was
concluded by it earlier that the offer was indeed an offer to the public. In
view of this, there was no option left in manner of applying for listing.
Listing was an inevitable consequence of such an offer and thus not optional
but mandatory. Requirement of listing automatically brings in the jurisdiction
of the SEBI, as it transforms a “public company” into a “listed public company”
and thus covered by Section 60B too.
Section 55A gave powers to SEBI to administer specific provisions on unlisted
companies that did not intend to get their securities listed?
55A gives powers to SEBI to administer certain provisions in case of listed
companies and unlisted companies that intended to get their securities listed
on recognized stock exchanges. The Saharas were neither listed nor, they
claimed, they intended to get listed. This was even clearly specified in
various documents.
Supreme Court held that intention could not be grasped and determined out of
context of the actions of the Saharas. The Saharas did make an issue to the public.
Such a public issue necessarily resulted in their being mandatorily required to
get such securities listed. Thus, there is a deemed intention since they could
not carry out acts which require listing and then claim that they do not intend
to list their securities.
otherwise, the Supreme Court held, Section 11 of the SEBI Act was wide enough
to give powers to SEBI to protect the interest of investors in securities and
to regulate the securities markets by such measures as it thinks fit. This is
wide enough to give powers to SEBI under the present facts. Later provisions of
the Act do state that SEBI has certain powers over “other persons associated
with the securities markets” and public companies which intend to get their
securities listed on recognized stock exchanges. Even if these are taken to be
restrictions for those sections and purposes, they do not apply to the former
provisions. Thus, SEBI has adequate powers to govern the unlisted Saharas.
Section 11A is even more specific in matters of issue of prospectus, etc. Section
11B/11C reinforce this conclusion that SEBI has powers to govern listed and
unlisted companies. Being a stand alone statute, the SEBI Act cannot be limited
even by the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956.
SEBI had jurisdiction to regulate and administer the unlisted Saharas.
the SEBI DIP Guidelines had statutory force or were mere “departmental
Supreme Court held that the DIP Guidelines did have “statutory force” and that
the OFCDs were issued in contravetion of the DIP Guidelines as also of the SEBI ICDR
Regulations that succeeded them.
there was a pre-planned attempt by the Saharas to by pass the regulatory and
administrative authority of SEBI in respect of issue of OFCDs?
was pointed out by SEBI that the Saharas had modified the explicit format of
declaration required to be given in the prescribed format. The prescribed
format required the companies issuing a prospectus to state, inter alia, that
the guidelines of SEBI have been complied with and no statement is made
contrary to the provisions of the SEBI Act or rules made thereunder or
guidelines issued thereunder. The Saharas omitted these declarations. There was
further attempt to misguide by stating that the offer was by way of private
placement when the invitation was extended to approximately 3 crores persons.
The Supreme Court said that it certainly seemed so that there was a pre-planned
intention to bypass the regulatory and administrative authority of SEBI.
manner of issuing the information memorandum/RHP showed that the procedure
adopted was “obviously topsy-turvy and contrary to the recognized norms in
company affairs”. All this made, the Supreme Court said, the entire approach of
the Saharas “calculated and crafty”.
repeated refusals to share information and their non-cooperation, the
unrealistic and possibly fictitious information provided and other similar factors
made the Supreme Court to also state that the whole affair was “doubtful,
dubious and questionable”.
the Supreme Court upheld the proceedings initiated by SEBI and the Orders of
SEBI and SAT. It upheld the Order of SAT for refund of the amounts collected by
issue of OFCDs alongwith interest @ 15% per annum. Mechanism was laid down to
ensure this including deposit of the amounts with a nationalized bank,
appointment of a retired Judge of the Supreme Court to oversee the process and
several other directions for safeguarding various interests.

of abbreviations:-
– Optionally Fully Convertible Debentures
ROC – Registrar of Companies
– the two Sahara Companies – (i) Sahara India Real Estate
Corporation Limited and (ii) Sahara Housing Investment Corporation Limited.
– Securities Appellate Tribunal
– Securities Contracts (Regulations) Act, 1956
– Securities and Exchange Board of India
(FTM) – SEBI (Full Time Member) or SEBI (Whole-time Member)
ICDR Regulations – Securities and Exchange Board of India (Issue of Capital and
Disclosure Requirements), 2009

SEBI DIP Guidelines –
Securities and Exchange Board of India (Disclosure and Investor Protection)
Guidelines 2000

About the author

CA Jayant Thakur


  • Maybe more meticulous drafting would prevent people from trying to exploit the loopholes. The definition of securities was added to the Companies Act in 2000 that reads "securities means securities as defined in clause (h) of section 2 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956), and includes hybrids”. This allowed Sahara to plausibly argue that by implication, hybrids are not covered in SCRA definition of securities. Since the SCRA is the principal legislation dealing with securities contracts, it would be logical to effect any change in the definition of securities in that law. Other laws, such as the Companies Act, may then simply reference the same. Similarly, many provisions of Part III of the Companies Act have been explicitly made applicable to `securities’, but Section 67 (public offer) still talks about only shares and debentures! So, as per Sahara’s (two of the many) contentions – OFCDs are hybrids (so not securities as per SCRA), and are neither shares nor debentures, so Section 67 provisions reg. public offers do not apply to them! One may call it the Narsimha Doctrine, which the Supreme Court refused to accept.

    Mangesh Patwardhan

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